Edorium Journal of

Public Health

 
     
Original Article
 
Risk factors for buruli ulcer in a referral mission hospital in anambra state, Nigeria: A case control study
Adogu POU1, Igwe JC2, Chineke HN3, Egenti NB4
1Department of Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
2Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
3Department of Community Medicine, Imo State University, Orlu, Nigeria
4Department of Community Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria

Article ID:100018P16AP2018
doi:10.5348/100018P16AP2018OA

Address correspondence to:
Dr. Prosper OU Adogu,
Department of Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,
Awka, Nigeria

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How to cite this article
Adogu POU, Igwe JC, Chineke HN, Egenti NB. Risk factors for buruli ulcer in a referral mission hospital in anambra state, Nigeria: A case control study. Edorium J Public Health 2018;5:100018P16AP2018.


ABSTRACT

Aims: Buruli ulcer is a chronic debilitating skin disease believed to be caused by an environmental bacterium – Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its mode of transmission is still elusive. Buruli ulcer can cause permanent disability and deformity which may severely limit a person’s ability to carry out normal daily activities. The associated stigma may greatly restrict the social participation by affected persons. Though early detection and adequate medical and surgical treatment can minimize future disability and complication, recognizing the risk factors of this disease can lead to adoption of appropriate preventive strategies.
Methods: A case-control study of 120 patients (40 cases and 80 matched controls) was undertaken in a referral mission hospital. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from subjects. The folders of case subjects were also reviewed. Results: Significantly higher proportion of Buruli ulcer cases were males when compared to the control group (x2 = 3.84 p = 0.05, OR = 2.22). Poor education (x2 14.27, p=0.0003 and OR 5.13), visit to water bodies (x2 = 67.78, p=0.00000 and OR = 63), No BCG vaccination (x2 = 6.79, p=0.01 and OR = 2.79), pet in the house (x2 = 9.25, p=0.002 and OR = 3.55), poor drinking water source (x2 = 45.32, p=0.00000 and OR = 19.52), no preventive measure (x2 = 18.3, p=0.0005 and OR = 6.27) were significantly associated with Buruli ulcer.
Conclusion: This study identified, regular visit to water bodies, male gender, poor education, lack of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination and poor drinking water source as risk factors for Buruli ulcer, in the face of apparent lack of awareness of disease and its risk factors among the subjects. Aggressive public enlightenment is recommended to hopefully reduce the prevalence of Buruli ulcer disease.

Keywords: Buruli ulcer, Nigeria, Risk factors



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Author Contributions
Adogu POU – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Igwe JC – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Chineke HN – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Egenti NB – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2018 Adogu POU et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



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